Thursday, April 29, 2010

Memorizing the word parts -angi-, angio-, phlebo- used in medical terms

reddish brown emboldened words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings.

orange emboldened words are terms taken from other fields of study that may be of interest.

angi-, angio- from Gr. angeion, a vessel, means "a vessel of some kind [usually blood but not always]". [angiocardiography, lit. the drawing of heart vessels, angiocyst, lit. vessel bladder, angioplasty, lit. the surgical formation of a vessel, angioscotoma, lit. vessel scotoma or vessel dark spot, cholangiole, lit. a diminutive bile vessel, gonangiectomy, lit. excision of a seed vessel, Hydrangea, Bot. lit. water vessel]

phlebo- from Gr. phleps means "vein". [fleam, Med. an obsolete lancet, phlebeurysm, lit. vein widening (dilation), phleboclysis, lit. washing out a vein, Phlebotomus, lit. vein cutter, phlebotomy, lit. vein incision, pylephlebectasis, lit. gate (portal) vein stretching out (dilation) condition)

Memory story: [I use fleas for a few of my blood and blood vessel stories. This is one of them.] For weeks you've been watching submariner fleas build a vessel to sail down blood and lymph vessels. Upon close inspection you now see they call their little flea boat (phlebo-) "The Angie" (angi-).

Periodic Table’s Elements Iron (26) through Tin (50)

Using Mnemonic's Phonetic Peg System in memory story form for memorizing the elements Iron through Tin by their atomic number. Unlike using rote memorization, these memory stories should last our memory for years to come. Also, for more long-term memory word association purposes I've included information about the element's word part meanings and a few common, academic, scientific, and/or medical words that share the same word parts.

Iron (26), Peg (notch), symbol Fe, from the word ferrous, word part ferri-, ferro-. [farrier, a smith who shoes horses, ferrule, lit. diminutive iron (bracelet), feratin, Chem. ferric, lit. relating to iron, ferrokinetics, lit. the study of iron movement]

Memory Story: Billy the Kid has asked you, a rather nervous farrier, if you would be so kind as to put another notch in the handle of his shooting Iron after he killed the farrier whose job you took over. You tell him sure and there'll be no fee (Fe) because you'll let the fairies (ferrous) do the job tonight. He believes you.

Cobalt (27), Peg (neck), symbol Co, from a German kobald meaning "goblin, underground spirit".

Memory Story: [We need to share an image of cobalt blue glass.]
Your first week out of boot camp you get the wonderful job of cleaning the Commanding Officer's (C.O.) (Co) house and accidentally break the long neck off his beautiful cobalt blue vase he paid dearly for in Singapore. Instead of trying to hide the vase you show him what you've done without any excuses, apologize, and prepare to take your punishment, which never comes.

Nickel (28), Peg (knife), symbol Ni, from a German word kupfernickel, which means "copper nickel" with nickel probably meaning "demon's or devil's".

Memory Story: You bought a nickel knife last night (Ni) for a nickel. Thinking you got a great deal you find out in the morning you paid about four cents too much.

Copper (29), Peg (knob or nap), symbol Cu, from the Latin word cuprum from Cyprus which was renowned for its ancient copper mines.

Memory Story: You're a new cop who has been staked out to watch for the vandals who've been ripping the copper pipes out of abandoned houses in your town. You've been in this house for twelve hours waiting for someone to turn the copper knob of the front door. You decide to take a nap so you balance a piece of copper pipe on the door knob so it will wake you up when someone turns the knob and lie back for a short twenty winks. Unfortunately you're a sond sleeper and the thieves come in the back door, take out the pipe, and then the jam the front door shut with the copper pipe you put there as a burglar alarm and yell "See you (Cu) Copper", as they run down the street laughing. You still didn't hear them. I think you need to consider a career change.

Zinc (30), Peg (mouse), symbol Zn, from German zink, of unknown origin.

Memory Story: [We need to share the image of a Zen garden for this memory story.] You're pet mouse has created a Zen (Zn) garden in your zinc sink and spends all day in the sink meditating and practicing the art required for the Zen tea ceremony with your pet turtles,
Leonardo, Raphael, Donatello, and Michelangelo

Gallium (31), Peg (moat), symbol Ga, from L. Gallia, Gaul, France. (See Building Blocks of the Universe, a book on the elements by Isaac Asimov for more intriguing information about the name Gallium.)

Memory Story: [We need to share the image of a galley for this memory story.] You're a very young Cortez and have a dream about crossing a moat with a fleet of galleys (Gallium) you have built by hauling them through a jungle and up the sides of mountains piece by piece. That dream always bothered you until you use the idea to build small galleys, cross the lake barrier surrounding the city of Tenochtitlan, and conquer the Aztecs starting on the night of one of their bloody galas. (Ga)

Germanium (32), Peg (mine or moon), symbol Ge, from L. Germania, Germany.

Memory Story: Gee (Ge) a German mine. I wonder how it works you think as you start to fiddle with the thing. Or.
Warning: [A bit off color and this memory story also has the possibility of causing interference with Selenium so it's up to the user.] Gee (Ge) a German moon, you think as you take close aim at a German soldier during WWI's Battle of the Somme who has decided to show how brave he is by mooning the British and French side of the front.
You miss and permanently leave your mark a little lower on a lance corporal named Adolph Hitler.

Arsenic (33), Peg (mummy), symbol As, from Greek arsenikon, yellow orpiment.

Memory Story: Warning: (Could be offensive to some people.) Your ass (As) of a friend decided he would be an arsonist (Arsenic, not related) and burn down a vacant building just for the hell of it. Now he's wrapped up like a mummy because he couldn't get out of the building he set on fire.

Selenium (34), Peg (mower), symbol (Se), from Gr. selene which means "moon or crescent" and so called because it resembles tellurium from L. tellus, earth. [selenodont, lit. moon (crescent) tooth, Selenomonas, lit. moon (crescent) unit, Selena, Greek Religion, goddess of the moon]

Memory Story: A super salesperson like you has no problem selling (Selenium, not related) mowers to the moon creatures who live along the edge of the moon's Sea (Se) of Tranquility.

Bromine (35), Peg (mule), symbol Br, from Gr. bromos, bad smell, with word part –brom- meaning "stench or the presence of bromine in a compound". [bromide, fig. a worn out platitude [that smells], antibromic, lit. against a stench, bromate, Chem. bromide, Chem, bromidrosis, lit. smelly sweat condition, bromism, Med. chronic bromide intoxication, Bromeikon™, lit. bromine image, fig. a trademark substance used for X-ray imaging of the gall bladder]

Memory Story: Warning: (Sixth grade humor ahead.) It's about 1850 in Kentucky and you're to take the family's wares to market on this cold winter morning. You load a thousand of some of the best homemade brooms (bromine) in the state onto the backs of your pack mules because the path to town and the railroad is too narrow for a wagon. Brrr, (Br) it sure is cold today you think when Old Flatulence, your lead mule, hee haws and then cuts a real loud one getting all the mules braying because of the stench. Damn. He's been in that pile of spent beer and whisky grain again.

Krypton (36), Peg (mash), symbol Kr, from Gr. kryptos, hidden; so named because it was rare and difficult to find in hot springs' gases. Word parts krypt-, crypt- mean "hidden or concealed". [crypt, a hidden burial vault under the main floor of a church, cryptic, hidden or secret, apocryphal, lit. hidden away, orig. books hidden from the public because they contained harmful esoteric information, now, anything of questionable authenticity, crypta, lit. crypt, cryptomenorrhea, lit. hidden month flow, Cryptostroma
corticale, lit. hidden fibrous structure – bark, onychocryptosis, lit. concealed nail condition]

Memory Story: You're the arch criminal Lex Luthor. You travel to Africa and steal a meteorite of Kryptonite from a museum. Then you have slave labor mash the meteorite into a fine powder hide it in a lead lined shipping container marked Kraft™. The harmless looking container is shipped to a crypt in Europe where you hide it until you perfect your plan on enticing Superman to come you and the hidden crypt full of Kryptonite powder.

Rubidium (37), Peg (mug), symbol Rb, from L. ruber meaning "red", so named because rubidium's spectroscope displays two red lines. [ruby, rubric, that part of a work in early manuscripts which was colored red, metarubricyte, lit. beyond or changing red cell, rubella, lit. diminutive red, rubeola, lit. diminutive red, rubor, lit. redness]

Memory Story: You make ruby red mugs for Arby's (Rb) roast beef sandwich fast food chain.

Strontium (38), Peg (movie), symbol Sr, named for the Scottish village of Strontian, having been discovered from lead ores from their mines.

Memory Story: You're watching a movie
of last week's high school football game with the head coach. "We have a strong team (Strontium) Sir (Sr)", you comment as the team displays their obvious athletic strength by rolling over the other team on every play in the movie.

Yttrium (39), Peg (mop), symbol Y, named for Ytterby, Sweden.

Memory Story: You've been working for a janitorial service for about six months and being the new guy you always get the hardest job. "Why (Y) mop the white room (Yttrium) every night if no one ever uses it?" you ask your supervisor. You want to know because the white room is the size of a football field and so white it would blind you if you didn't use sunglasses during your entire eight hour shift. [Atrium would also work for Yttrium as a word substitution.]

Zirconium (40), Peg (rose), symbol Zr, from Persian zargun meaning "gold like" and from Fr. jargon, jargoon, zircons fine enough to used as gems.

Memory Story: It's about 1890 and your friend Rose received a fifty carat zircon from the Czar. (Zr) Or. Your eyes just about popped out of your head when your friend Rose found a huge zircon during your archeological dig in Zaire. (Zr)

Niobium (41), Peg (rod or road), symbol Nb, from Niobe, daughter of Tantalus and so named because of problems distinguishing Niobium's differences from Tantalum when it was first discovered.

Memory Story: You're Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn and have numerous disciplinary problems with a newbie (Nb) so you take a rod to his little behind and then put him to bed. "Night Obi-Wan. (Niobium) We'll start fresh tomorrow with a new attitude, won't we?" you tell your new charge as you turn off the light. [Niobe is also a Matrix character that could also be used.] Warning: You're going down the road to the Nude Beach (Nb) because you've been told Niobe was there catching some rays.

Molybdenum (42), Peg (rain), symbol Mo, from Anc. Gr. molybdos, lead.

Memory Story: Your stooge friend Moe (Mo) borrowed and left your favorite Levis™ out in the rain and now after two weeks of damp weather they're moldy denims. (Molybdenum) Sure they look a little fuzzy but no one else in school has a spotted pair like them and you'll be the envy of everyone. That is until they get within smelling distance of you.

Technetium (43), Peg (ram), symbol Tc, from Gr. technetos, artificial from techne, art, skill, craft. [pyrotechnics, lit. the organized knowledge of fire craft, fig. the art of creating and firing fireworks, polytechnic, lit. relating to many arts, fig. a technical school in many industrial arts, technique, the application of an artform, technocausis, the art of burning]

Memory Story: You work for a Telecommunications (Tc) company that has a ram as their technical nut (Technetium) or the guy who fixes all the technical problems with the equipment. Technicians come from miles around to watch the ram as he artfully performs his craft with the skill of a practiced surgeon. Because of his abilities your company's equipment has never gone down because he fixes the problems before they happen.

Ruthenium (44), Peg (rear), symbol Ru, named for Ruthenia, Russia from where it was originally discovered.

Memory Story: Well you didn't have to ask because her reputation preceded or maybe I should say followed her but you ask anyway. "Are you (Ru) Ruth Anne?" (Ruthenium) you ask of the lady with a very large rear end.

Rhodium (45), Peg (roll), symbol Rh, from Gr. rhodon, rose, red, from the rose red color of some of rhodium's salts. [rhododendron, lit. rose tree, fig. an evergreen shrub prized for its beautiful clusters of flowers, rhodopsin, lit. red vision substance, Rhodophyllus sinuatus, lit. red leaf – bending or wavy]

Memory Story: [You're in charge of props for the movie Wizard of Oz.] Well you thought it looked great but you have the flying Rhesus (Rh) monkey actors, on loan from doing the scariest part in the movie; roll up the red brick road (Rhodium) because of some stupid song they just wrote that doesn't go with it. Artists? You could have painted the top of the stupid plastic prop road yellow but oh no. They wanted entire bricks painted yellow and set in place one at a time. With the way they're spending money on this movie they'll never make a dime.

Palladium (46), Peg (roach), symbol Pd, from the asteroid Pallas which was discovered and named about two years before Palladium, from the epithet Pallas Athena because Athena slew the Titan Pallas in the Gigantomachy (Battle of the giants).

Memory Story: [We need to share some info about the old Palladium dance hall in New York so we can share the same visual association.] You're with the New York PD (Pd) and have been called out on a weird call to the old Palladium that was closed down in 1966. You go inside the old dance hall and the place is full of giant cockroaches doing all sorts of Latin dances. What the hell. You join them in a giant roach conga line and have a great time dancing around the old Palladium.

Silver (47), Peg (rock), symbol Ag, from L. argentum, silver, from Indo-European root arg, lit. white or shining. [Argentina, Arges, a Cyclops in Greek Mythology meaning "bright", argentation, lit. silver process or condition, argyria, lit. silver condition, litharge, lit. silver stone]

Memory Story: You discover during an exploration of the "rock of ages" (Ag) it turns out to be loaded with silver. Or. You're surfing the web looking for something to associate silver and rock of ages to and find this cover art for the Rock of Ages musical.

Cadmium (48), Peg (roof), symbol Cd from L. cadmium, which means calamine, a lotion made from zinc oxide.

Memory Story: Your mom is painted pinkish white from head to foot after a long hike through the woods and admiring the beautiful red leaves of some poison ivy. She needs some more calamine lotion and sends you to the store. You borrow the Cadillac (Cadmium) with that special roof made out of your mom's CDs (Cd) molded inside of a laminated plastic covering. Oh, I forgot to mention your mom's a famous country western singer didn't I?

Indium (49), Peg (rope), symbol In from the indigo color seen in its spectrum. [India, from the country being the earliest center of indigo dyes]

Memory Story: You're doing the famous Indian rope trick for your friends and when you get to the top you pass through a violet blue like dimension and when you climb back down you find yourself in (In) India. (Indium)

Tin (50), Peg (lace), symbol (Sn) from L. stannum, orig. an alloy of silver and lead.

Memory Story: You're the proud mother or father of your son (Sn) Stan. Stan's about eight years old and get's the part of the Tinman in The Wizard of Oz play at school. You make the suit out of tin and using a metal wire you lace Stan inside the suit. Unfortunately the suit is a bit stiff and you have to stand Stan up (stannum) because he keeps falling over.




Monday, April 19, 2010

Memorizing medical word part anemo-

Struggling Student's Memory Guide uses association and mnemonic memory techniques to help students memorize educational information quickly without rote memorization. This blog is about one (anemo-) of about a thousand medical word parts a health science can and should remember for the rest of their professional lives.

Why memorize these meanings? Because if we remember these medical word part meanings, we will know the literal meanings of over ninety percent of all the terms in a medical dictionary. Or, to state this another way, if a high school student memorized these meanings they would be ready for most of the scientific and medical terminology they're going to confront and learn the hard way in college.

[As an aside, they would also have the associative building blocks for about sixty percent of the academic terms they'll need to get through college. However word parts for common and academic terms are not as helpful because these terms are much more figurative than medical and scientific terms.]

Using association and mnemonics I think this memory challenge can be accomplished easily in six months and with use, remembered for a lifetime.

blue emboldened words are common or academic terms that can be associated to a medical term because they share the same word parts.

reddish brown emboldened words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings. [Most of the time, in medical and scientific terminology, the literal and figurative meanings are the same or very close to each other.]

orange emboldened words are terms from other fields of study that use the same word part and may be of interest.

anemo- from Gr. anemos, wind, means "wind, a current of air, inhalation". [anemometer, lit. wind measurer, fig. a wind measuring device, anemonol, lit. wind oil, anemone, Bot. wind flower, sea anemone, Marine Bio.]

Memory Story: You're the clown fish Nemo from the movie Finding Nemo and live in an anemone (anemo-, rel.) that looks like it's always blowing in the wind.

Thursday, April 15, 2010

Medical word part andr-, -anthro-, -anthropo-

There's lots of memory sites and blog pages siting reasons why we should use mnemonics and how they're the panacea to all our memory woes. I can tell you from my own experience, mnemonics are not a cure all and they have their definite limitations. One of those limitations is the creative time it takes to come up with a mnemonic and it's for this reason I believe students don't have the time to create mnemonics. But, what if someone spends six weeks or six years creating one mnemonic a student can quickly use to remember something for a lifetime without being bored to death drilling the information into their head? That is the goal of Struggling Student's Memory Guide. To help student's remember educational information faster and better by creating mnemonics and/or finding other associative memory techniques they can use quickly and efficiently.

blue emboldened words are common or academic terms that can used for association purposes because they share the same word part with a more complex medical or scientific term.

reddish brown emboldened words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings.

Word parts and memory story taken from High Speed Memory Techniques for Medical Terminology.

-andr-, -andro-, -anthro-, -anthropo- from Gr. andros, and anthropos, means "man, male, human, mankind". [Andrew, lit. strong, manly, android, lit. like a man, anthropology, lit. human science, fig. science of the origins and social relationships of human beings, androblastoma, lit. male germ cell tumor, androgen, lit. produced by man, androgynous, lit. having male and female characteristics, anthropogeny, lit. origin or creation of man, anthropozoonosis, lit. human and animal disease process]

Memory Story: Oh no. You knew better than to go in that biker bar with Andrew (andr-, rel.) who always has to prove what a big man he is after one beer. He jumps in the middle of a pool game scattering the balls about and yells, "My name is Andrew and me and my friend can throw (anthro-) any man in the place!"

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Medical word parts ancylo- and ancyr-

On Struggling Student's Memory Guide we use association and mnemonic memory techniques to help us remember educational information. I think you'll find these techniques faster and more entertaining to use than rote memorization. While most of the posts are about medical terms we've also covered The Bill of Rights, The Preamble, Bloom's Taxonomy, Electron's sub-shell configurations, and currently I'm posting the Periodic Table by Atomic Numbers. So far only the first twenty five elements but the rest will follow as time allows.

blue emboldened words are common or academic terms that can be used for association purposes because they contain the same word part as a medical or scientific term.

reddish brown emboldened words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings.

orange emboldened words are terms from other fields of study that may be of interest to some people.

ancylo- from Gr. ankylos, bent, curved, crooked, is a Zoological word part meaning "hooked, curved, or crooked". [angle, from Gr. ankos, a bend, ankle, Ancylostoma, lit. hooked mouth (hookworm), ancylostomiasis, lit. hookworm condition, Angles, a hook shaped district of Schleswig from which a group of German conquerors of England came in the 5th century and from which we get the terms Anglo- and England, Ancylus, Zoo. genus of snails with limpet-shaped shells]

ancyr- from Gr. ankyra, anchor, means "shaped like an anchor fluke". [angle, from Gr. ankos, a bend, anchor, ancyroid, lit. resembles an anchor] (see ancon-)

Memory Story for ancylo-: You're wading through the Nile's warm waters when you see giant Ancylostoma hookworms hook on to your ankle (ancylo-, rel.) wiggle into your skin and are making a beeline for your intestines with your first symptom being a swelling of your abdomen.

No memory story for ancyr- because the word association is so close.

Monday, April 12, 2010

Recalling medical word part ancon- and word olecranon

By using association, visualization, meditative, and creative memory techniques instructors can help their students remember, retain, and recall information more efficiently without using rote memorization. These techniques can also help the instructor have more control over what their students can remember. This will be of growing importance to students and their instructors considering some of the ideas coming out of Washington at this time.

blue emboldened words are common or academic terms that can be associated because they share the same word part with medical or scientific terms.

reddish brown emboldened words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings.

orange emboldened words are terms from other fields of study that may be of interest.

ancon- from Gr. ancon, bent arm, elbow, a bend, means "ancon, the elbow or something shaped like an elbow". [angle, from Gr. ankos, a bend, anconad, lit. towards the elbow, anconeus, lit. elbow (joint muscle) anconoid, lit. resembles an elbow, Ancon sheep, extinct breed of sheep with crooked legs] (see ancylo- and ancyr- tomorrow)

olecranon from Gr. olene, ulna + kranion, head, skull, means "the head of the elbow".

Memory Story: [You've invented a kindergarten teaching robot named Ann and programmed her to be creative, resourceful, and show initiative when confronting a problem.] Uh oh. There's that squeak again in Ann's elbow. Ann can use (anconeus) some elbow grease so she uses her laser vision, melts some Crayolas and puts her elbow into the oily crayon (olecranon) mass to make her squeak go away.

Memory Story: You're teaching children how to color on a hot day and put your elbow on a hot oily crayon (olecranon).

Sunday, April 11, 2010

Periodic Table’s Elements Hydrogen (1) through Manganese (25)

We're going to memorize all of the element's atomic numbers, their symbols, and what most of their names mean. That's a lot to ask for just using the Peg System so I've done my best to create Memory Stories for each of the elements. Memory Stories are more entertaining than just Linking a vision to a Peg and if the vision is meditated upon a little it could possibly last a lifetime . Also, for association purposes common, academic, scientific and medical words that share the same word parts with the elements are also included.

Hydrogen (1), Peg (tea), symbol (H), means, "water producer" from the word parts –hydr-, water + -gen-, birth, produce, reproduce, generate, originate. [hydrant, Hydra the water snake, hydraulic, hydroelectric] [generator, lit. that which generates or produces, Eugene, lit. good birth, genus, lit. birth,

progeny, lit. beget forth, genesis, lit. origination, anthropogenesis, lit. man origination, genital, lit. relating to birth, , Alcaligenes, lit. alkali producing]

Memory Story: You're in a giant teacup [like Disneyland's teacup ride] sitting on a very comfy teabag when it spins around and a Hydra (Hydrogen) turns the hydrant (hydrant) on of boiling hot water so he can make tea. You want to yell HOT but the only thing you can utter is H…H…H…H…H.

Helium (2), Peg (Noah), symbol (He), means "sun element" from the word part -heli-, sun. [ heliosis, lit. sun condition, Helianthus, lit. sun flower, perihelion, lit. around the sun]

Memory Story: You're Noah in the next great flood but your ark is fitted with giant Helium tanks that make it float in the air and it's driven by solar power. When the sun comes out on the forty first day it's a day of celebration when the electricity comes on and to entertain the animals and your fellow survivors you breathe in lungs full of Helium and start talking to everyone like daffy duck. Everybody laughs, "He He He".

Lithium (3), Peg (Ma), symbol (Li), means "stone element" from word part –lith-, stone. [monolith, lit. one stone, lithograph, lit. writing or drawing (picture) stone, Neolithic, lit. new stone (Age), lithagogue, lit. bringing forth stone, lithocensosis, lit. stone emptying process, coprolite, lit. feces stone]

Memory Story: (You're about six years old and missing a couple of your front teeth so you lisp a little.) You're at the seashore with your Ma and she hands you a shell to put up to your ear so you can hear the ocean. You pick up a stone and say "Lithen Ma" (lithium). "I can hear the ocean in thith thone too," you Li(e) while waiting to see if she'll buy the lie and put the stone up to her ear.

Berylium (4), Peg (rye), symbol Be, means "beryl element". [beryloid, lit. looks like a beryl, berylonite, lit. beryl mineral, Berylidae, lit. Beryl family]

Memory Story: We're going to need to know what a beryl looks like for this memory story. [It's either the Whisky Rebellion or Prohibition Era.] You have about twenty barrels of rye whisky that you want to hide from the government so you bury all of them (beryllium) out by your rye fields and then put boxes of bee (Be) hives over the entombed barrels. The revenuers will never find them there under the beehives and you can dig them up as need be. It took you a week to dig the pit and you kept finding these pretty multi-faceted green, red, and greenish white crystal clusters in the pit. You found a barrel of beryls but they're probably not worth anything.

Boron (5), Peg (owl), symbol B, word part boro- being used in chemical term like borocarbide, borocitrate, etc.

Memory Story: Oh no. You have to attend Professor B. B. Borons boring class. He's an old tenured owl who wears a sweater with a big "B" on the front every day. His lectures should be recorded and marketed as insomnia cures.

Carbon (6), Peg (shoe), symbol C, word part –carb-, -carbo-, carbon-. [carbuncle, lit. (looks like) a diminutive (live) coal, Carboniferous, lit. bearing or yielding coal characteristic, carbonate, carbide]

Memory Story: You're Dutch child and after last year's embarrassing lumps of coal in your shoes you hope Santa Claus treats you better because this year you've been "soooo" good. You run downstairs and sure enough there's a C-note sticking out of the top of one of your shoes. But wait. There's carbon in the other one but it's ten big diamonds. Wow, thanks Santa.

Nitrogen (7) Peg (cow), symbol N, word part nitr- from niter or nitre . [Nitrobacteriaceae, lit. nitrogen bacteria plant (family), nitric, nitride]

Memory Story: [Warning: Not a very pretty picture.] You're young and very dumb because you're making nitroglycerine out in the family's old unused hen (N) house where you've been allowed to conduct your chemical experiments after a small mishap in the kitchen. You're family was so proud of you until the family cow knocked down one of the planks of the old hen house and. Well need I say more? Thank goodness you were in the house ordering more chemical supplies off the Internet when the hapless cow blew itself and the henhouse to kingdom come.

Oxygen (8), Peg (ivy), symbol O, from word part oxy- meaning "sharp or pointed, containing oxygen, acid, acute, fast". [oxymoron, lit. sharp dull, paroxysm, lit. beyond the extreme sharp condition, Amphioxus, lit. sharp on both sides, hypoxia, lit. less than normal oxygen condition, oxyphil, lit. acid lover, oxytocia, lit. fast childbirth condition]

Memory Story: You've been hired to remove the ivy from a very expensive house's wall. First you try using sharp and pointed tools and clear a very small "O" in the ivy. That took you half the day which is way too long. Next you borrow the oxygen tank from your Dad's oxyacetylene welding torch and burn another O off but it's obviously going to discolor the house, not to mention possibly burn the place down. Then you try the new acid based OxySoap which works great but you have to get the SOAP oFf fast (sharp, oxygen, acid, pointed, fast) because even though it takes off the ivy, the acid in it could also take off the wall, not to mention your clothes, skin, and hair.

Fluorine (9 ), Peg (bee) symbol F, from word part fluo- meaning "contains flurorine" + ine, substance , halogen element and about five other common word meanings. Fluorine gets its name from the mineral fluorite or calcium fluoride which can be used as a flux. From the word part –flu-, -fluv-, -flux- which means "to flow". [fluid, confluent, lit. that which flows together, effluvia, lit. a flowing out condition, chimney flue, flux, influenza, the flu originally thought by astrologers to be influenced by the stars]

Memory Story: You paint a picture using two cases of different colored fluoride toothpaste of giant bee flying from humongous flower to humongous flower. Unfortunately your art professor hated it and gave you an F. Fortunately the CEO of a toothpaste company saw it on EBay and has offered you ten thousand dollars for the original.

Neon (10), Peg (toes), symbol Ne, word part neo- means "new" + -on in Chemistry means "inert gas element". [neophyte, lit. new plant, neodymium, lit. new twin element, Neolithic, lit. like new stone, nearthrosis, lit. new joint condition, neostrophingic, lit. new turning hinge, neotony, lit. new stretching]

Memory Story: You've created a new glass tube for making Neon signs that you can bend intricately without using any heat. You show your creation to investors by first bending it around your toes and then finish by wrapping it around your leg up to your knee (Ne). You then pinch off the ends fill it with Neon and light it up. Cool.

Sodium (11), Peg (toad), symbol Na, taken from the words natrium and natron. The word soda originally meant splitting headache.

Memory Story: Your friend makes sodas (Sodium) from all sorts of natural things he finds in his backyard. He has some toads floating around in soda water today and offers you a toad soda to which you reply, "Na" (Na) because the proffered drink has a big toad sitting on the edge of the glass staring at you.

Magnesium (12), Peg (dune), symbol Mg, named for a Greek district in Thessaly called Magnesia. [magnet, Manganese]

Memory Story: You're on the planet Dune racing your retro MG (Mg) dune buggy/sand rail through the dunes with all your friends. When the giant worms start to chase you down you all turn on your magnetic (magnesium) fields which lift you all high in the air and you're out of there.

Aluminum (13), Peg (tomb), symbol Al, named from the base alum which literally means "bitter salt".

Memory Story: You've entered a tomb and once inside you discover the exterior stone walls encapsulate a very lightweight aluminum pyramid shaped spacecraft with alien writing all over the highly polished interior. Uh oh, I think you're in a Stargate story and all (Al) hell is about to break lose.

Silicone (14), Peg (tire), symbol Si, named from the word silica, flint.

Memory Story: [Warning: A bit bawdy.] You sigh (Si) with embarrassment as you discover your immature friends have used tubes of silicone to silicone implants on your tires and they're giggling in the back seat like a bunch of little school girls as you go flopping out of the school parking lot while everyone turns to see you and your friends in the boobmobile. Aptly named I would think.

Phosphorus (15), Peg (doll), symbol P, from word parts -phos-,-phot-, light + -phor-, -fer-, bring, bear, yield, carry. [Phosphor lit. light bear(er), is another name for "morning star or Venus", aphose, lit. without light, onychophosis, lit. nail light condition, phosgene, lit. to produce light, phosphorescence, lit. in the beginning stages of bearing light] [euphoria, lit. a bearing well, metaphor, lit. change a carrying, phoria, lit. a carrying, phorozoon, lit. animal motion]

Memory Story: [Warning: A bit off color.] [You're a young guy.] Your Army action figure (doll) is made in a foreign country and unbeknownst to you the whole thing is accessorized with phosphorus parts and painted with phosphorus paint to make it give off a cool glow in the dark. You're in your room and give your doll a little phosphorus torch (match) to carry before you take a lifelike picture to show your geekish friends tomorrow morning at school. The doll goes up like a torch and you try and put out the fire with the water you have on hand, so to speak, by Peeing (P) on it. That didn't do a damn bit of good because by then it was too late and unfortunately your room was incinerated before the fire department could put the fire out. Well it seemed like a good idea at the time.

Sulphur (16), Peg (dish), symbol S, word of uncertain origin.

Memory Story: You're back in a medieval times fantasy world and you and six other unfortunate villagers were chosen to do the horrific job of feeding the monstrous dragon under the mountain his six foot wide piled high dish of brimstone (sulphur) every day. You must be very careful so as not to wake him up from his sleep even though everyone's teeth are chattering and knees are knocking together. His snoring sounds like a thousand giant snakes hissing S's and the stench from his sulphuric morning breath is more than anyone can bear. You have to endure though because the group you all replaced heard the hissing stop when they accidentally dropped the dish and were turned into toast.

Chlorine (17), Peg (tag), symbol Cl, word part chlor- means "pale green, yellowish green, or having something to do with chlorine" + -ine, word ending for halogen elements, etc. [chlorophyll, lit. green leaf, chlorolabe, lit. green (retina cone) holder, chloropsia, lit. green vision condition, chlorosis, lit. green condition]

Memory Story: You're playing Clue (Cl) in your pool and tag each other with thrown cups of chlorine your Dad keeps by the pool. You decide it's time to quit when everyone's hair turns green and there's a yellowish green haze emanating from your skin and the water.

Argon (18), Peg (TV), symbol Ar, and means "inactive" from word parts a-, not or without + -erg-, -org-, -urg-, work + -on, inert gas word ending. [George, lit. earth worker, energy, lit. relating to work within, metallurgy, lit. relating to working with metal, erg, lit. work, ergasthenia, lit. work without strength, synergy, lit. relating to working together, organ, surgery]

Memory Story: You run a Fortune 500 company and your bank just called to tell you you're company is bouncing checks all over the place because you don't have any money in your accounts. You're mad as hell and you and your chief financial officer run down to (A.R.) or Accounts Receivable and discover your employees are not working, AGAIN. They're all sitting around watching the movie Jason and the Argonauts on TV or they're asleep with piles of money, checks, and paid invoices strewn about their desks which they're using as pillows.

Potassium (19), Peg (tub), symbol K and is derived from the word potash or pot of ashes from originally obtaining potash by leaching wood ashes and evaporating the obtained lye in iron pots. Potassium was originally called Kalium from which we get the K and the word parts -kali-, -kal- and -cali-. [alkali, Alcaligenes, lit. alkali producing, hyperkalemia, lit. excessive potassium in the blood condition, hyperkaluresis, lit. excessive potassium in the urine condition, kaliopenia, lit. potassium poverty condition]

Memory Story: [In this story we need to know what the Hindu goddess Kali looks like for associating to Kalium.] You take the old cast iron bathtub you found in the alley and get it ready for making potash. The multi-armed Kali is coming over to give you lessons on how to make Potassium using an iron pot and wood ashes and she wanted you to get as big a pot or in this case tub as you could find. Kali brings a giant iron key (K) for you to stir the stuff while the water evaporates. In case you don't know this let me give you a prudent piece of advice. Considering Kali's reputation I would pay very close attention to everything she says or does or you're a goner.

Calcium (20), Peg (nose), symbol Ca and its word part –calc- means "lime, limestone, or chalk". [calcify, lit. to make into limestone, calicosis, lit. limestone dust condition, calcinosis, lit. calcium condition. Also, its diminutive calcul-, a little piece of chalk or pebble, is used in the words calculus, calculate, calculosis, lit. diminutive stone condition]

Memory Story: You're a French building restorer in the early 1800's, who was drafted into French Army, and then sent to Egypt to serve in the infantry. Some drunken soldiers, who are friends of yours, have shot off the nose of the Sphinx and they've asked for your help to repair the damage or they'll be in caca* (Ca) up to their eyeballs if you know what I mean. You take about hundred pounds of chalk (calcium carbonate), grind it up into a fine white powder, which is called whiting, and mix it using the heels of your feet over three days with linseed oil to make homemade caulk (calc-, not related to calcium). You use the mass of caulk to adhere the nose back on the Sphinx, throw some sand on the smoothed overcrack, and voila, good as new. At least until the desert gets up to about 120 degrees and the caulk gives away but hopefully by then you and the Army will be gone when the nose hits the dirt. [*Caca is a Spanish word, familiar to many Americans, that means "dung or excrement" but it can also mean "spit" as in the ship name Caca Fuego (lit. Spitfire or fig. boaster).]

Scandium (21), Peg (net), symbol Sc, and means "Scandinavian element".

Memory Story: You sent all the way to Scandinavia (Scandium) for your very expensive specially woven fish net and now that you're out here in the ocean for the first time you find out you get seasick (Sc) real easy. Or. Your girl friend spends a fortune on sexy fish net stockings from Scandinavia and you tell her she looks like she has a bunch of holes in her sock (Sc).

Titanium (22), Peg (nun), symbol Ti, and means "Titans or 'the sons of Earth' element".

Memory Story: You're in the movie Titanic (Titanium) and your part is to tie (Ti) a nun to the after part of the ship's handrail so she won't be flung forward through the air when the Titanic nose dives forward and the after part of the ship is lifted into the air. It was a great scene but unfortunately you and nun's big shot hit the cutting room floor.

Vanadium (23), Peg (enema), symbol V, and means "Vanadis (a name of the Norse goddess Freya) element".

Memory Story: Warning: (A bit disgusting.) It happens every time. The high school cafeteria served their extra thick mac and cheese and they had to call in the emergency enema van (Vanadium) again because so many students were seriously constipated. Yep, you're one of the unfortunates, and with the whole school watching you enter the infamous enema van. Ten minutes later you emerge with a relieved smile on your face and give the crowd the famous Victory sign with both hands outstretched above your head amidst a thunderous cheering and applause. Only five hundred more students and twelve teachers to go; so to speak.

Chromium (24), Peg (Nero), symbol Cr and means "color element" from word part chrom- which means "color or having something to do with chromium". So named because of the varied colors of many of chromium's compounds. [achromatic, lit. without color, chromatic, lit. of color, chromaffin, lit. affinity for chromium, chromatism, lit. a color condition, chromidium, lit. diminutive color, chromosome, lit. color body]

Memory Story: [You're in Rome at around 60 A.D.] You were out joy riding in your parents chariot and just ran into Nero's multicolored chrome chariot and start to cry (Cr) because you know his reputation for mercy. None.

Manganese (25), Peg (nail), symbol Mn from the corruption of Magnesia. [see Magnesia]

Memory Story: You live in South America and the hybrid mango (Manganese) trees you helped create only bare mini (Mn) mangoes. Your Dad tells you to pick them all, which will take days climbing through the trees, and throw them away. You come up with the ingenious idea of using his nail gun to shoot the mini mangoes out of the tree by making a few unsafe alterations to the nail gun. It works great, except for a few unfortunate iguanas, and you pick up the nailed mangoes using an electromagnet you rigged up to the tractor's battery. You box all the nailed mangoes and take them to market to see if you can sell them. When the buyers baulk about the nails and their size you explain these are special mini- mangoes because they've been magnetized which makes them sweeter and more holistically energizing than the big ones. They use it as a marketing tool and you have hundreds of orders for nailed mini-magnetized mangoes now.








Friday, April 2, 2010

Memorizing word part ana-

Using association and mnemonic memory techniques can make it possible to recall information most people think they could never remember without using a lot of boring rote memorization. The well used word part ana-, with its multiple meanings defined below, is only one example of how helpful visual and verbal mnemonics can be to our memory.

blue emboldened words are common or academic terms that we can associate to a more difficult medical or scientific term because they share the same word part.

reddish brown words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings.

ana- from Gr. ana, up, means "back or backward, again or against, excessive, up or upwards(most of the time), or through". [anachronism, lit. against time, fig. an error, by a writer usually, which places persons or things in the wrong time, analysis, lit. to loosen up, fig. investigating the parts of a whole, anabiosis, lit. the state of living again, anabrosis, lit. eating up process, anacatesthesia, lit. up down sensation, anaclasis, lit. bending back, anadipsia, lit. the condition of excessive thirst, anastomosis, lit. mouth through process, cholanopoiesis, lit. making bile upwards]

Memory Story: [ana- is opposite of cata- which works out well for our memory story because here ana- is a dog and later when we do cata- it will be a cat.] Oh no. She's come through the door and is back again. You're at your friend's house when Ana, (ana-, not related) your friend's forty five pound, slobbering, under washed mongrel, runs up to you and knocks you backward onto the couch. "Up Ana, up", your friend coaxes as Ana jumps into your lap for the sixth excessive time today. "Isn't Ana a BEAUTy?" he asks you. (back or backward, excessive, again or against, up or upward, through)

Thursday, April 1, 2010

Memorizing medical word parts amyl-, amylo, -myl-

Using association and mnemonic memory techniques in education can help us eliminate rote memorization and help students remember usable information for a lifetime. It's only a matter of enough instructors taking the time to find and/or create associations and mnemonics for their students. If we do this, I think we can change the way people learn and remember and make memorization an enjoyable expedient experience rather than the usual rote memorization drudge.

blue emboldened words are common or academic terms that can be used for associative purposes because they share the same word part with medical or scientific terms.

reddish brown emboldened words are medical terms that should be looked up in a medical dictionary for their figurative meanings.

orange emboldened words are terms from other fields of study that may be of interest to some people.

amyl-, amylo- from Gr. amylon, fine meal, starch, from amylos, a-, not + -mylos, milled (ground) [or as we would say in our time, specially ground] means "starch or of a polysaccharide nature or origin". [mill, the act of grinding, amyl, Chem., amylodiosis, lit. starch resembling disease, amyloplast, lit. starch formation, amelcorn, corn cultivated in Europe for producing starch]

-myl-, -mylo- from Gr. myle, a mill, means "having to do with a mill or molar teeth". [mill, the act of grinding, mylabris, lit. mill cockroach, mylohyoid, lit. the molar teeth and hyoid bone]

Memory Story: You've only heard about this banana split and there it is. A mile (amyl-) of starch and sugar the local fast food joint puts together and donates to help continue the fight against diabetes every year.

Memory Story: You run into Disney's Milo (mylo-) in the mill and he bites you a good one with his molars which going by his picture I would say are all his teeth.

Mnemonic’s Peg System Using the Phonetic Code aka The Major System

When a "Memory Expert" memorizes lists of things by their numerical order (shuffled decks of cards, magazine info by their page number, etc.) they've spent a lot of time using a mnemonic peg system which they've carefully prepared and pre-visualized for clarity and speed purposes. That way they're ready to visually "hang" an image on their pegs as they perform their art.

We've already used the rhyme peg list below to memorize the Bill of Rights in my first blogs but now we need a lot more pegs than just ten because in my upcoming blogs I want to help students memorize the Periodic Table's elements by their atomic number. Below there's one hundred and four pegs for the Periodic Table using Mnemonic's Phonetic Code. If you want a more extensive peg list I would like to suggest Dr. Alan Krill's book Pseudonumerology. This book is almost two hundred pages of phonetic codes from 0 through 99940. It's ponderous but I promise you, it won't give you a pseudonumerologicphoebia. (A made up word for sesquipedalian mnemonics lovers that's 0-9 using the phonetic code.)

Before deciding which pegs to choose and pre-visualizing them deep into your memory, I want to share a mnemonic idea that makes this challenge a bit easier and more expedient. We don't want to spend time mentally searching for our peg image so it's helpful to know our peg list as well as the things in our house. Try placing your pegs in a familiar location (Loci method) like your house so a teacup is at your front door and maybe Noah's ark is just inside the front door. This makes the visualization and association Links go even faster and if you decide you want to impress your friends with how fast you can memorize a deck of cards or other numerical lists this will speed up the process. [Note: As you run through your Peg Loci when memorizing shuffled decks of cards or other numerical lists a few hundred times your pre-visualized pegs become extraneous and disappear as the location becomes the peg, which allows you to go even faster.]

Also, when creating your visual image for your chosen pegs give them some life. If you decide to use teacup as "one", don't just visualize a teacup but maybe visualize yourself in a spinning teacup from Disneyland's Teacup ride. You may also find it helpful to visualize yourself in the imagery. Also, and this is very important, if you're thinking about memorizing decks of cards don't use pegs that start with h (hearts), s (spades), d (diamonds), or c (clubs) in your peg list. You're going to need some of those pegs for the cards and then you'll have to redo your peg list.


Rhyme Peg List

1-run, 2-zoo, 3-tree, 4-door, 5-hive, 6-sticks, 7-heaven, 8-gate, 9-dine, 10-den

Phonetic Code Pegs or The Major System

(There are many more possible pegs but I've tried to use the most easily visualized one.)


One - (tea) cup, toy, toe, ad, auto, dough, hat

Two – Noah, Anne, gnu, honey, wine, wino, yawn, hen

Three – Ma, Amie, emu, home, ham, hem

Four – rye, arrow, ear, hair, hero, Ray, war, wire, whore

Five – owl, eel, heel, hole, hula, lye, oil, whale, willow, wool

Six – shoe, ash, hash, hooch, jaw, Jew, Joe, ouch, witch

Seven – cow, ache, egg, hag, hawk, hickey, hike, hookah, hug, key, oak, wig, yoke

Eight – ivy, Eve, hive, UFO, weave, wife

Nine – bee, ape, buoy, boy, hippie, hippo, hobo, hypo, paw, pea, pie, whip, wipe,

Ten – toes, daisy, autos, dose, hats, heads, hoods, hothouse, woods

Eleven – toad, dad, date, death, dude, hothead, idiot, tattoo, teeth, tooth

Twelve – dune, Dan, Dane, dean, teen, thong, tin (don't use this number peg for the periodic table), tongue, tuna, wooden

Thirteen – dam, tomb, dam, Adam, atom, dame, dime, dome, team, thumb, Tom

Fourteen – tire, Audrey, author, dairy, deer, door, hatter (mad), hooter, hydra, otter, Thor, Torah, tower, tree, tray, water

Fifteen – doll, Attila, dial, duel, hotel, huddle, Italy, tail, tool

Sixteen – dish, dash, DJ, Dodge, tissue

Seventeen – tug (boat), deck, decoy, Dick, dike, doc, dock, dog, duck, taco, tag, toga

Eighteen – TV, Dave, dive, taffy, toffee, tofu

Nineteen – tub, adobe, depot (Home), dope, dip, tabby, tap, tape, tepee, toupee, tuba

Twenty – nose, anus, hens, hyenas, knees, NASA, Nessie as in Loch Ness, niece

Twenty one – net, aunt, hunt, knight, knot, nightie, nude, nut

Twenty two – nun, neon (don't use for the periodic table), onion, union

Twenty three – gnome, enemy, enema

Twenty four – Nero, owner, wiener, winery, winner

Twenty five – nail, knoll, Nile, Noel

Twenty six – notch, wench, winch, Angie

Twenty seven – neck, Hank, honky, hunk, Inca, nag, nook, Nick, nuke, Yankee

Twenty eight – knife, knave, nephew, nova

Twenty nine – knob, nap, nip

Thirty – mouse, homes, mace, Mace, mass, Mayas, mesa, Messiah, moose, Muse

Thirty one – mit (baseball), mat, mate, maid, mead, meadow, meat, Medea, moat, moth, mouth, mud, mutt

Thirty two – moon, men, mane, mine, woman, women, yeoman

Thirty three – mime, mamma, Miami, mom, mummy, muumuu

Thirty four – mower, Homer, homer, Hummer™, mohair, myrrh, moray

Thirty five – mule, male, mall, mill, mole

Thirty six – mash (potatoes), Amish, macho, mush

Thirty seven – mug, amigo, hammock, Mecca, Mike, mocha

Thirty eight – muff (ear or hand), Mafia, Mojave, movie

Thirty nine – mop, amoeba, hemp, hump(back) whale, map, mob, Moby

Forty – rose, Aries, arrows, ears, Eros, hairs, harrows, hearse, heiress, Horace, horse, oars, rice, wars

Forty one – road, arrowhead, art, heart, rat, redeye, riot, rodeo, root, wart, yard

Forty two – rain, arena, Ernie, hernia, heroine, heroin, horn, iron, Orion, rhino, Rhine, Reno, ruin, urn, yarn

Forty three – ram, arm, army, harem, rhyme, rim, Rome, room, rum, worm

Forty four – rear, Aurora, horror (movie), warrior, worrier

Forty five – roll, earl, oral, rail, reel, royal, rule

Forty six – roach, arch, Irish, orgy, rajah, rash, rich, rouge, Russia

Forty seven – rock, arc, earache, Iraq, rack, rag, Reich, rook, rookie, rug, wreck

Forty eight – roof, reef, RV, rave (party)

Forty nine – rope, Arab, herb, orb, rabbi, rib, robe, ruby (don't use this number peg for the Periodic Table)

Fifty – lace, Alice, hills, lassie, lasso, lice, Louis, owls, whales, wheels, willows

Fifty one – light, Eliot, Iliad, lady, latte, lath, lathe, lead (don't use for Periodic Table), lotto

Fifty two – lion, alien, Helen, lane, lawn, line, loin, loon

Fifty three – lime, Alamo, elm, alum, lamb, limb, limo, loom

Fifty four – lyre, healer, lawyer, liar, lure, oiler, whaler, Yeller (Old)

Fifty five – lily, lolly(pop), oil well

Fifty six – leech, algae, eulogy, lash, leash, ledge, lodge,

Fifty seven - lock, lick, elk, Hulk™, loco, Luke

Fifty eight – lava, love, elf, leaf, levee, olive, wolf

Fifty nine – lip, elbow, lobby, LP, wallaby

Sixty – cheese, ashes, chess, chews, jaws, jays, jazz, Joyce

Sixty one – jet, chateau, cheat, chute, geode, jade, jetty, judo, shade, shadow, s@#$

Sixty two – chain, China, Eugene, genie, gin, Jane, Jean, John, Johan, June, ocean,

Sixty three – jam, gem, chime, Jimmy, gym, chamois

Sixty four – chair, gyro, jar, jury, sherry, shore, shower, usher, washer

Sixty five – shell, cello, chalet, Chile, chili, jail, Jell-O™, Shelly

Sixty six – judge, cha-cha, choo-choo, hashish, Joshua

Sixty seven – chick, check, cheek, choke, Chuck, chuck, Czech, jack, Jack, jock, jog, jockey, jug

Sixty eight – chef, chief, Chevy, Java, Jehovah, Jiffy™ peanut butter, shave, Shiva

Sixty nine – ship, chap, chip, chop, Jeep™, job, sheep, shop

Seventy – gas, ax, case, cows, eggs, hawks, hex, hickeys, hikes, hogs, kiss, ox

Seventy one – goat, cat, coat, code, coot, cud, egghead, God, god, kid, kit, kitty, kite

Seventy two – cone, can, cane, canoe, coin, con, coon, guano, gun, iguana, Ken, king, queen

Seventy three – comb, cameo, gum, gummy (bear), game

Seventy four – car, choir, chorea, core, cry, cure, curio, Gary, gear, hiker, hooker, Korea, okra

Seventy five – coal, cola, coil, coolie, eagle, galley, Gail, ghoul, glow, glue, goal, goalie, igloo, koala

Seventy six – cash, , cage, coach, cashew, gauge, geisha, gouge

Seventy seven – cake, cock, cog, coke, cookie, gig, kayak, keg, kick, kook, quake

Seventy eight – cave, cafe, calf, coffee, cove, (hand)cuff, goof

Seventy nine – cup, cop, cab, cob, coop, cowboy, cub, Cuba, guppy, hiccup

Eighty – vase, face, fizz, fuse, fuzz, fuzzy, hives, hoofs, office, vase, vice, visa, vise

Eighty one - fat, aphid, feat, feet, fight, feud, food, foot, fit, VD, video, voodoo, vote

Eighty two – phone, fan, fawn, fin, funny, Havana, heaven, oven, phony, van, vane, vein, Vienna, vine

Eighty three – foam, fume, fame, FM

Eighty four – fire, Afro, aviary, fairy, Pharaoh, ferry, fur, Hoover, ivory, voyeur

Eighty five – file, evil, flaw, flea, flu, foil, folio, fool, offal, oval, veal, veil vile, viola, volley

Eighty six – fish, Fiji, fudge, fuchsia, voyage

Eighty seven – fig, fag, fake, fog, f@#%

Eighty eight – fife, Fifi, five, viva, woof-woof

Eighty nine – fob, fib, phobia, phoebe, VIP, VP

Ninety – bus, base, bass, Boise, booze, boss, pass, paws, peas, peso, pizza, piss, pies, posse, pus, wipes, whips

Ninety one – bat, bait, bath, bead, beauty, bed, beet, behead, bet, bite, boat, boot, Buddha, hobbit, patio, patty

Ninety two – ban, bean, bone, bun, bunny, pawn, pen, penny, pin, pony, weapon

Ninety three – bum, bomb, beam, opium, palm, poem, puma

Ninety four – bar, beer, bear, berry, bra, brew, bury, buyer, opera, Peru, power, pyre

Ninety five – ball, apple, Apollo, bell, belly, Bill, bill, blue, bowl, bull, pail, opal, pal

Ninety six – bush, Apache, badge, bitch, Butch, page, patch, peach, pitch, pooch, pouch, push

Ninety seven – puck, back, Bach, beak, beg, bike, bog, book, bookie, bouquet, bug, peg, pick, pig, pug, puke

Ninety eight – Puff (the Magic Dragon), beef, beehive, buffet

Ninety nine – puppy, baby, Bob, booboo, boob, bye-bye, papa, poop, pop, Popeye

One hundred – disease, daisies, decease, diocese, dices, doses, dozes, Odysseus, outhouses

One hundred one – test, toast, dust, taste, wet suit

One hundred two – design, Disney, dozen, Edison, Hudson, teasing, tossing

One hundred three – toss'm, toss me, atheism, autism

One hundred four – (bull)dozer, dowser, howitzer, teaser